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1 /FUJITSU.NETCOBOL.ENTERPRISE.FOR.WINDOWS.V9.0-EDGEISOHow well-known is the bronze clade of Simulium (Gomphostilbia) (Diptera:Simuliidae) s.l.? A biogeographic perspective based on DNA sequence data and distribution patterns. The subgenus Gomphostilbia White & Papp, 1961, formerly considered to contain restricted taxa, is herein redefined. Whereas the members of subgenus Gomphostilbia differ from other members of the Simuliini in the presence of wing polydiae, they do share a similar wing venation, an almost identical aedeagus, a relatively similar disposition of flagellar segments, and a set of other general morphological characters. Consequently, we propose to unite this subgenus into a new genus Simulium. To assess the taxonomic status of this genus, we studied the molecular markers EF1alpha, 18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, ITS-2 and ITS-1 for the taxa included in subgenus Gomphostilbia and compared the results to those of other DNA-based phylogenetic studies. Furthermore, we examined the distribution patterns of these taxa. Our results support the unity of the subgenus Gomphostilbia, delimited by the presence of wing polydiae and the disposition of flagellar segments IX-XI. We also show that Simulium eximium (Papp, 1927) (syn. Melanophoramanshamae Tokunaga, 1930) is a junior synonym of Simulium manatum (Theobald, 1901) (syn. Simulium mehlikae Gomy & Donay, 1999) and that Simulium eximium is the only valid species of the Melanophoramanshamae species group. Finally, the similarity in the morphology of the aedeagus across most lineages of Simulium (Gomphostilbia) s.l. is surprising and probably can be explained by a strong case of character stasis in this group.Q: Will every finite abelian group have a subgroup of order $4n$ for some $n$? I’d like to know whether the question “Will every finite abelian group have a sub c6a93da74d

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