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Advice for calculating photovoltage due to photon impact

My teacher in college told us that the effect of photon impact ionization is very small and therefore doesn’t worth calculating.
How is that? Is his assumption based on experimental facts?
I assume the reason is that the average free electron energy is much larger than the photon energy. Am I correct?
Thank you in advance.


You’re correct that the energy of the particles involved in impact ionisation would be higher than the energies of the photons in question, and hence the effect is much smaller.


As already mentioned, you are correct that the energy of the impact ionization particle is higher than the energy of the photon.
There are several other factors that lead to the small effect that you are talking about.

The effect is very low. For a one micron wavelength, the mean free path length is roughly a thousand microns. Therefore, the probability of an impact ionization is so small that it requires many millions of impacts before one is significant.
The vast majority of photons are absorbed by the lattice (i.e. “junk”) electrons that are present in the silicon. These electrons are probably already ionized and are not a major contributing factor.
If you look at the high energy electron beam and electron beam lithography processes, it’s clear that the impact ionization is present. While these processes are slightly different than the impact ionization effect that you are probably thinking about, the processes themselves use very similar mechanisms.

Lastly, there is a very important factor. As Helmut.Conrad mentioned in his answer, it is the fact that the impact ionization effect is not an instantaneous process. It is best thought of as a quasiparticle excitation created by an electron that is moving at quite high velocity.


The reason the effect is small is because electrons in silicon are actually much less mobile than free electrons. Don’t confuse this with the more subtle fact that hole mobility is much higher than electron mobility. The explanation for why these things are so is very complex and depends on quantum mechanics.
As HelmutConrad pointed out, the electrons involved in impact ionization are much more energetic than those that the photon imparts